Blockchain-Based Solution for Distribution and Delivery of COVID-19 Vaccines

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36 Scopus citations


Distribution and delivery of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have become challenging after their emergence. Today's platforms and systems leveraged for managing data related to COVID-19 vaccines' distribution and delivery fall short in providing transparency, trackability and traceability, immutability, audit, and trust features. Also, they are vulnerable to the single point of failure problem due to centralization. Such limitations hindering the safe, secure, transparent, trustworthy, and reliable distribution and delivery process of COVID-19 vaccines. In this paper, we propose an Ethereum blockchain-based solution for managing data related to COVID-19 vaccines' distribution and delivery. We develop smart contracts to automate the traceability of COVID-19 vaccines while ensuring data provenance, transparency, security, and accountability. We integrate the Ethereum blockchain with off-chain storage to manage non-critical and large-sized data. We present algorithms and discuss their full implementation, testing, and validation details. We evaluate the proposed solution by performing cost and security analysis as well as comparing it with the existing non-blockchain and blockchain-based solutions. Performance evaluation results reveal that the proposed solution is low-cost, and our smart contracts are secure enough against possible attacks and vulnerabilities. The smart contracts code along with testing scripts is made publicly available.

Original languageBritish English
Article number9427467
Pages (from-to)71372-71387
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021


  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • Ethereum
  • security
  • smart contracts
  • traceability
  • vaccines' distribution and delivery


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