Black soldier fly larval valorization benefitting from ex-situ fungal fermentation in reducing coconut endosperm waste

Chung Yiin Wong, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Seteno K.O. Ntwampe, Man Kee Lam, Pei Sean Goh, Chin Kui Cheng, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Jun Wei Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Oftentimes, the employment of entomoremediation to reduce organic wastes encounters ubiquitous shortcomings, i.e., ineffectiveness to valorize recalcitrant organics in wastes. Considering the cost-favorability, a fermentation process can be employed to facilitate the degradation of biopoly-mers into smaller organics, easing the subsequent entomoremediation process. However, the efficacy of in situ fermentation was found impeded by the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) in the current study to reduce coconut endosperm waste (CEW). Indeed, by changing into ex situ fermentation, in which the fungal Rhizopus oligosporus was permitted to execute fermentation on CEW prior to the larval feeding, the reduction of CEW was significantly enhanced. In this regard, the waste reduction index of CEW by BSFL was almost doubled as opposed to in situ fermentation, even with the inoculation of merely 0.5 wt % of Rhizopus oligosporus. Moreover, with only 0.02 wt % of fungal inoculation size to execute the ex situ fermentation on CEW, it could spur BSFL growth by about 50%. Finally, from the statistical correlation study using principal component analysis, the presence of Rhizopus oligosporus in a range of 0.5–1.0 wt % was regarded as optimum to ferment CEW via ex situ mode, prior to the valorization by BSFL in reducing the CEW.

Original languageBritish English
Article number275
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalProcesses
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Black soldier fly
  • Coconut endosperm waste
  • Entomoremediation
  • Ex situ fermentation
  • Rhizopus oligosporus
  • Valorization

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