Biochar production via pyrolysis of citrus peel fruit waste as a potential usage as solid biofuel

Anurita Selvarajoo, Yu Ling Wong, Kuan Shiong Khoo, Wei Hsin Chen, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Renewable energy sources such as biomass have been proven to be one of the promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. However, using biomass directly as a fuel is less attractive due to its high moisture content, poor grindability, low bulk density, and low energy density nature. Hence biomass can be converted into biochar to overcome these challenges. In this study, biochar was derived from citrus peels biomass by slow pyrolysis over the temperature range of 300–700 °C. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the quality of citrus peels-derived biochar was examined based on the physical and chemical properties obtained from various analyses. The citrus peels biomass and biochar were characterized by means of higher heating value (HHV) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared ray (FTIR) analysis, proximate and thermogravimetric analysis. Based on the characterization results, the potential usage of the derived biochar as a solid fuel was discussed. Results obtained from the pyrolysis experiments indicated that a lower pyrolysis temperature produced a higher char yield. The carbon content and energy content of biochar were found to be increasing with pyrolysis temperature. Biochar produced at 500 °C presented the best fuel properties by having the highest value of HHV and carbon content. The results from this study provided great insights into biomass waste reutilisation to generate value-added biochar for renewable energy production in Malaysia.

Original languageBritish English
Article number133671
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Biochar
  • Biofuel
  • Biomass
  • Citrus peel wastes
  • Renewable energy
  • Slow pyrolysis


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