Assessment of Bus Inertia to Enhance Dynamic Flexibility of Hybrid Power Systems with Renewable Energy Integration

Sudipta Ghosh, Younes J. Isbeih, Mohamed Shawky El Moursi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The integration of renewable energy resources and employment of multi-terminal dc links have dramatically transformed the structure of traditional power systems into hybrid networks with reduced inertia levels. Therefore, the new paradigm requires a coherent architecture for computing the spatiotemporal distribution of total system inertia. With this objective in mind, a novel approach is proposed in this paper for calculating bus inertia that captures power system dynamics and facilitates the real-time computation of grid flexibility. The bus inertia is defined as the distribution of the total inertia across all system buses located in different geographical regions. In this context, a simplified mathematical formulation for bus inertia computation is developed that does not require a linearized model for hybrid power systems. In the existing methods, linearizing the whole power grid is complex, computationally challenging, requires mathematical modification for any change in systems and not rigid enough in terms of accuracy. The computation of bus inertia can be used during planning and operation phases that span long and short-time horizons to enhance system flexibility. Furthermore, it assists in identifying the spatial system strength for any area or zone. Consequently, the proposed method can be further utilized to meet the increasing penetration levels of renewable energy resources (RES) and enhance grid flexibility. The computed bus inertia (and eventually system inertia) can also be applied for load shifting, allocation of wide-area damping controllers (WADCs), coherency detection, relay setting, sitting of RES and energy storage systems (ESS) to ensure stable and flexible operation of the power grids. The efficacy of the proposed method is tested and verified using the two-areas, four machines test system, IEEE 39 bus, IEEE 68 bus and IEEE 118 bus standard test systems.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Admittance
  • Bus Inertia
  • Center of inertia (COI)
  • Estimation
  • Generators
  • Indexes
  • Inertia estimation
  • Power system dynamics
  • Power system stability
  • transient stability
  • Voltage


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