Asphalt-rubber interaction and performance evaluation of rubberised asphalt binders containing non-foaming warm-mix additives

Haopeng Wang, Xueyan Liu, Hong Zhang, Panos Apostolidis, Tom Scarpas, Sandra Erkens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology has been increasingly utilised in rubberised asphalt pavements to reduce the production and compaction temperatures and the incidental fumes and odours. This study aims to investigate the high, intermediate and low-temperature performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt binders containing WMA additives. The asphalt-rubber interactions under various mixing combinations of temperature and time were investigated through both microscopic and mechanical methods to obtain the optimum mixing procedure. The effects of WMA additives (wax-based and chemical-based products) on the binder performance were investigated by multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test, linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test and low-temperature frequency sweep test. Results show that rubberised asphalt binders significantly improve the binder performance of base asphalt at different temperature ranges. The effects of WMA additives on binder performance varied with base asphalt and rubberised asphalt binder. In addition, the nonrecoverable compliance difference was found not suitable to characterise the stress sensitivity of rubberised binders and the difference in the nonrecoverable compliance for an incremental change in applied stress was proved to be a more accurate alternative. For the cyclic LAS test, the failure energy was found to have a strong correlation with the predicted fatigue life using simplified viscoelastic continuum damage analysis and therefore can be considered as a simple indicator for binder fatigue performance ranking. Relaxation modulus and rate derived from low-temperature frequency sweep tests produced comparable results for ranking the low-temperature performance of different binders. It is feasible and promising to use a unified DSR test methodology to characterise the binder performance covering the whole service temperature range.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1612-1633
Number of pages22
JournalRoad Materials and Pavement Design
Issue number6
StatePublished - 17 Aug 2020


  • crumb rubber modifier
  • frequency sweep
  • LAS
  • MSCR
  • warm mix asphalt


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