Apoptosis progression studied using parallel dielectrophoresis electrophysiological analysis and flow cytometry

H. J. Mulhall, A. Cardnell, K. F. Hoettges, F. H. Labeed, M. P. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Apoptosis is characterised by many cellular events, but the standard Annexin-V assay identifies two; the transfer of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) from inner to outer leaflets of the plasma membrane, acting as an "eat me" signal to macrophages, and the permeabilisation of the plasma membrane. In this paper we compare the results from the Annexin-V assay with electrophysiology data obtained in parallel using dielectrophoresis, which highlights two changes in cell electrophysiology; a change in cytoplasmic conductivity which correlates with PS expression, and a membrane conductance spike that correlates with permeabilisation. Combining results from both methods shows a strong inverse relationship between conductivity and PS externalisation. One mechanism which may explain this correlation is related to intracellular Ca2+, which is known to increase early in apoptosis. PS expression occurs when enzymes called scramblases swap external and internal phospholipids, and which are usually activated by Ca2+, whilst the change in cytoplasmic conductivity may be due to K+ efflux from intermediate conductance (IK) ion channels that are also activated by Ca2+.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1396-1401
Number of pages6
JournalIntegrative Biology
Volume7
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2015

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