Analysis of Vascular Architecture and Parenchymal Damage Generated by Reduced Blood Perfusion in Decellularized Porcine Kidneys Using a Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix

Igor V. Pantic, Adeeba Shakeel, Georg A. Petroianu, Peter R. Corridon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


There is no cure for kidney failure, but a bioartificial kidney may help address this global problem. Decellularization provides a promising platform to generate transplantable organs. However, maintaining a viable vasculature is a significant challenge to this technology. Even though angiography offers a valuable way to assess scaffold structure/function, subtle changes are overlooked by specialists. In recent years, various image analysis methods in radiology have been suggested to detect and identify subtle changes in tissue architecture. The aim of our research was to apply one of these methods based on a gray level co-occurrence matrix (Topalovic et al.) computational algorithm in the analysis of vascular architecture and parenchymal damage generated by hypoperfusion in decellularized porcine. Perfusion decellularization of the whole porcine kidneys was performed using previously established protocols. We analyzed and compared angiograms of kidneys subjected to pathophysiological arterial perfusion of whole blood. For regions of interest Santos et al. covering kidney medulla and the main elements of the vascular network, five major GLCM features were calculated: angular second moment as an indicator of textural uniformity, inverse difference moment as an indicator of textural homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM correlation, and sum variance of the co-occurrence matrix. In addition to GLCM, we also performed discrete wavelet transform analysis of angiogram ROIs by calculating the respective wavelet coefficient energies using high and low-pass filtering. We report statistically significant changes in GLCM and wavelet features, including the reduction of the angular second moment and inverse difference moment, indicating a substantial rise in angiogram textural heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that the GLCM method can be successfully used as an addition to conventional fluoroscopic angiography analyses of micro/macrovascular integrity following in vitro blood perfusion to investigate scaffold integrity. This approach is the first step toward developing an automated network that can detect changes in the decellularized vasculature.

Original languageBritish English
Article number797283
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
StatePublished - 8 Mar 2022


  • angiography
  • bioartificial kidney
  • bioengineering
  • decellularized kidney
  • decellularized porcine kidney
  • gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm
  • parenchymal damage
  • vascular architecture


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