Aging phenomena during in-service creep exposure of heat-resistant steels

Grigorios Chaidemenopoulos, K. Polychronopoulou, A. D. Zervaki, H. Kamoutsi, S. I. Alkhoori, S. Jaffar, P. Cho, H. Mavros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


An investigation of aging phenomena during creep exposure has been conducted for HP-Nb cast reformer tubes for several exposure conditions. Aging was manifested by carbide precipitation, carbide coarsening, and carbide transformation. The transformation of primary M7C3 to the more stable M23C6 carbide takes place at high exposure temperature (910 °C and above). The primary MC carbides transform to the Ni-Nb silicide or G-phase during creep exposure. The presence of Ti in the steel prevented the transformation of MC carbides to the G-phase. Morphological changes like needle to globular transitions, rounding of carbide edges, and carbide coarsening take place during creep exposure. The room-temperature tensile elongation and ultimate tensile strength are significantly reduced during creep exposure. The above aging phenomena are precursors to creep damage.

Original languageBritish English
Article number800
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • aging
  • carbides
  • cast reformer tubes
  • creep
  • G-phase
  • steam reforming


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