Advanced Waveguide Based LOC Biosensors: A Minireview

Muzafar A. Kanjwal, Amal Al Ghaferi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This mini review features contemporary advances in mid-infrared (MIR) thin-film waveguide technology and on-chip photonics, promoting high-performance biosensing platforms. Supported by recent developments in MIR thin-film waveguides, it is expected that label-free assimilated MIR sensing platforms will soon supplement the current sensing technologies for biomedical diagnostics. The state-of-the-art shows that various types of waveguide material can be utilized for waveguide spectroscopic measurements in MIR. However, there are challenges to integrating these waveguide platforms with microfluidic/Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices, due to poor light–material interactions. Graphene and its analogs have found many applications in microfluidic-based LOC devices, to address to this issue. Graphene-based materials possess a high conductivity, a large surface-to-volume ratio, a smaller and tunable bandgap, and allow easier sample loading; which is essential for acquiring precise electrochemical information. This work discusses advanced waveguide materials, their advantages, and disease diagnostics with MIR thin-film based waveguides. The incorporation of graphene into waveguides improves the light–graphene interaction, and photonic devices greatly benefit from graphene’s strong field-controlled optical response.

Original languageBritish English
Article number5443
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • graphene incorporation
  • LOC devices
  • mid-infrared
  • waveguides


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