A study on the uptake of methylene blue by biodegradable and eco-friendly carboxylated starch grafted polyvinyl pyrrolidone

Fazal Haq, Arshad Farid, Naveed Ullah, Mehwish Kiran, Rizwan Ullah Khan, Tariq Aziz, Sahid Mehmood, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Mubashir, Awais Bokhari, Lai Fatt Chuah, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


This study is based on the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by cost effective and biodegradable adsorbent carboxymethyl starch grafted polyvinyl pyrolidone (Car-St-g-PVP). The Car-St-g-PVP was synthesized by grafting vinyl pyrolidone onto carboxymethyl starch by free radical polymerization reaction. The structure and different properties of Car-St-g-PVP were determined by 1H NMR, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM. A series of batch experiments were conducted for the removal of MB, The adsorption affecting factors such as temperature, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye, dose of Car-St-g-PVP and pH were studied in detail. The other parameters like the thermodynamic study, kinetics and isothermal models were fitted to the experimental data. The results showed that pseudo 2nd order kinetics and Langmuir's adsorption isotherms were best fitted to experimental data with regression coefficient R2 viz. 0.99 and 0.97. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption mechanism favored chemisorption. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) for the adsorption process was found to be −7.31 kJ/mol, −8.23 kJ/mol, −9.00 kJ/mol and −10.10 kJ/mol at 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C and 55 °C respectively. The negative values of ΔG° suggested the spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Similarly, the positive values of entropy (ΔS°) and enthalpy (ΔH°) 91.27 J/k.mol and 19.90 kJ/mol showed the increasing randomness and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The value of separation factor (RL) was found to be less than one (RL < 1), which supported the feasibility of the adsorption process. The maximum MB removal percentage (% R) was found to be 98.6%. So, these findings show that Car-St-g-PVP can be meritoriously used for the treatment of MB from wastewater.

Original languageBritish English
Article number114241
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Adsorption
  • Eco-friendly adsorbent
  • Isotherm
  • Kinetics
  • Methylene blue
  • Thermodynamics


Dive into the research topics of 'A study on the uptake of methylene blue by biodegradable and eco-friendly carboxylated starch grafted polyvinyl pyrrolidone'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this