A scoping review of neurodegenerative manifestations in explainable digital phenotyping

Hessa Alfalahi, Sofia B. Dias, Ahsan H. Khandoker, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Neurologists nowadays no longer view neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, as single entities, but rather as a spectrum of multifaceted symptoms with heterogeneous progression courses and treatment responses. The definition of the naturalistic behavioral repertoire of early neurodegenerative manifestations is still elusive, impeding early diagnosis and intervention. Central to this view is the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in reinforcing the depth of phenotypic information, thereby supporting the paradigm shift to precision medicine and personalized healthcare. This suggestion advocates the definition of disease subtypes in a new biomarker-supported nosology framework, yet without empirical consensus on standardization, reliability and interpretability. Although the well-defined neurodegenerative processes, linked to a triad of motor and non-motor preclinical symptoms, are detected by clinical intuition, we undertake an unbiased data-driven approach to identify different patterns of neuropathology distribution based on the naturalistic behavior data inherent to populations in-the-wild. We appraise the role of remote technologies in the definition of digital phenotyping specific to brain-, body- and social-level neurodegenerative subtle symptoms, emphasizing inter- and intra-patient variability powered by deep learning. As such, the present review endeavors to exploit digital technologies and AI to create disease-specific phenotypic explanations, facilitating the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases as “bio-psycho-social” conditions. Not only does this translational effort within explainable digital phenotyping foster the understanding of disease-induced traits, but it also enhances diagnostic and, eventually, treatment personalization.

Original languageBritish English
Article number49
Journalnpj Parkinson's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


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