A Review of Power System Flexibility with High Penetration of Renewables

Baraa Mohandes, Mohamed Shawky El Moursi, Nikos Hatziargyriou, Sameh El Khatib

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

283 Scopus citations


The notion of secure operation of power systems, with its present semantic, dates back to the last decade. Since then, tremendous research effort has investigated secure operation of the power system. Nevertheless, operators are still faced with security issues, with even larger uncertainty, however, caused by the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). The system's ability to cope with the volatility of RES and load becomes a critical issue in power system operation. This paper surveys the literature on the concepts of power system flexibility, indices of flexibility, and implementation of the concept of flexibility in power system security. The paper proceeds to review the origin of the reserve problem, the meaning of reserve, its technical classification and related economical aspects. The paper highlights the effect of renewables on these aspects, and suggests new research directions.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8635327
Pages (from-to)3140-3155
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • Contingency
  • Flexibility
  • Load-Following
  • Regulation
  • Renewable Energy System
  • Reserve
  • Review
  • Security
  • Spinning
  • Survey


Dive into the research topics of 'A Review of Power System Flexibility with High Penetration of Renewables'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this