A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production

M. Mushtaq, I. M. Tan, M. Sagir, M. Suleman Tahir, M. Pervaiz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Scopus citations


    The synthesis and application of a hybrid catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in Jatropha oil is reported. Three catalysts, namely silica sulfuric acid, silica supported boron trifluoride and a combination of the two in the weight ratio of 1:1, the hybrid catalyst, were investigated. Jatropha oil samples with a wide range of FFA values i.e. 6.64 to 45.64% were prepared and utilized for the experimental work. This study revealed that silica sulfuric acid and silica supported boron trifluoride were not very effective when used independently. However, a strong synergistic effect was noted in the catalytic activity of the hybrid catalyst which reduced the FFA value from 45.64 to 0.903% with a conversion efficiency of 98%. Reusability of the catalyst was also tested and the results were promising in up to three cycles of use when used with lower amounts of FFA (6.64%) in the oil. Under the influence of the catalyst, the reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy was calculated to be 45.42 KJ•mol-1 for 2 wt.% of hybrid catalyst. The products were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques and the results are reported.

    Original languageBritish English
    Article numbere150
    JournalGrasas y Aceites
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - 1 Jul 2016


    • Biodiesel
    • Esterification
    • Free Fatty Acids
    • Heterogeneous catalysts
    • Jatropha oil


    Dive into the research topics of 'A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this