A dynamic master/slave reactive power-management scheme for smart grids with distributed generation

Mohamed Shawky El Moursi, H. H. Zeineldin, James L. Kirtley, Khaled Alobeidli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


This paper introduces a novel coordinated voltage-control (CVC) scheme for distributed generations (DGs) that relies on adaptively changing the roles (master or slave) of the devices [inverter-based DG, diesel generator, and online tap changer (OLTC)] within the smart grid, depending on system conditions. In addition, the proposed scheme imposes different control response and bandwidth on the devices to coordinate the reactive power among distributed generations (DGs) and OLTC steps. The main objective of the proposed method is twofold: 1) to maximize the reactive power reserve of DGs and, hence, facilitate reaction during contingency situations and 2) to provide voltage regulation during normal operating conditions. The simulated distribution system includes inverter-based DGs (photovoltaic and wind turbine), diesel generator, and OLTC and the potential of the CVC scheme is evaluated and analyzed in view of improving voltage profile, maximizing the reactive power reserve, enhancing fault ride through and improving the transient stability margin. The control algorithm is examined under steady state, load excursion, and three-phase-to-ground fault conditions. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed CVC scheme to satisfy the targeted objectives with significant improvement in the maximum critical clearing time. The proposed scheme is independent of real-time measurements and is widely adaptive to the dynamics of power systems, thus making it quite suitable for utility implementation.

Original languageBritish English
Article number6701231
Pages (from-to)1157-1167
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Coordinated voltage control
  • distributed generation
  • online tap changer
  • reactive power management
  • voltage control and transient stability margin


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