3-D Hybrid VLC-RF Indoor IoT Systems with Light Energy Harvesting

Gaofeng Pan, Hongjiang Lei, Zhiguo Ding, Qiang Ni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


In this paper, a 3-D hybrid visible light communication (VLC)-radio frequency (RF) indoor Internet of Things system with spatially random terminals with one photodiode (e.g., indoor sensors: temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and indoor air quality sensors) is considered. Specifically, homogeneous Poisson point process is adopted to model to the distribution of the terminals, which means that the number of the terminals obeys Poisson distribution, and the positions of the terminals are uniformly distributed. VLC and RF communications are employed over downlink and uplink, respectively. Meanwhile, the terminals are designed to harvest the energy from the light emitted by the light-emitting diode over the downlink, which is used for the transmissions over the uplink. The light energy harvesting model is considered after introducing the line of sight propagation model for VLC. Then, the outage performance has been studied for the VLC downlink and non-orthogonal multiple access schemes over the RF uplink, respectively, by using stochastic geometry theory, while considering the randomness of the number of the terminals, and all terminals are spatially and randomly distributed in the 3-D room and all RF uplinks follow Rician fading. Finally, the approximated analytical expressions for the outage probability are derived and verified through Monte Carlo simulations.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8680694
Pages (from-to)853-865
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2019


  • Light energy harvesting
  • non-orthogonal multiple access
  • outage probability
  • radio frequency
  • Rician fading
  • stochastic geometry
  • visible light communication


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